Guillomas, Mary Joy
Rivera, Renz (DL)
Serenilla, Russel (DL)
Delos Reyes, L.
Dela Cruz, J.
Many students have difficulty concentrating while studying. Being able to concentrate while you
are studying is essential to doing well in class and on tests.
Here are 10 suggestions for improving your study concentration:
Try to study at the time of day you work best. Some people work well early in the morning, others
late at night. You know what works best for you.
Make sure you are not tired and/or hungry when you study. Otherwise, you won't have the energy
you need to concentrate. Also, maintain your physical fitness.
Don't try to do two tasks at the same time. You won't be able to concentrate on either one very
well. Concentration means focusing on one thing to the exclusion of all else.
Break large tasks into a series of smaller tasks that you can complete one at a time. If you
try to complete a large task all at once, you may feel overwhelmed and may be unable to maintain your concentration.
Relax. It's hard to concentrate when you're tense. It's important to relax when working on a
task that requires concentration. Meditation is helpful to many students.
Clear your mind of worrisome thoughts. Mental poise is important for concentration. You can get
distracted by your own thoughts. Monitor your thoughts and prevent yourself from following any that take you off track. Don't
Develop an interest in what you are studying. Try to relate what you are studying to you own
life to make it as meaningful as possible. This can motivate yourself to concentrate.
Take breaks whenever you feel fatigued. There is no set formula for when to take breaks. You
will know when you need to take a break.
Studying without concentration is like trying to fill a bucket with water when the bucket
has a hole in its bottom. It doesn't work.
do you want to know more? Click the link below...
Exposure to Seasonal Flu Weakened Armor Against H1N1
Faulty antibodies from previous infections boosted severity of swine flu in the middle-aged.
By Janelle Weaver
One of the puzzles of last year's H1N1 "swine flu" pandemic--which caused
thousands of deaths worldwide--was that seemingly healthy middle-aged adults were hit hardest. A study has now shown that
previous infection with other, seasonal, influenza strains primed patients' immune systems to harm their bodies rather than to mobilize against the new
The study, published online December 5 in Nature Medicine, began
with a hunch that antibodies from past encounters with pathogens might have determined the severity of H1N1 cases. (Scientific
American is part of Nature Publishing Group.)
Exposure to viruses causes the body to produce antibodies that fight off infection.
These proteins continue to circulate in the bloodstream and can recognize new invaders that resemble past pathogens. For example,
the 2009 H1N1 episode spared many elderly people because they had already encountered a related H1N1 strain more than half
a century ago, which had armed them with defensive antibodies. But curiously, young children infected with H1N1 who had little
or no prior infection with influenza showed milder symptoms than did middle-aged adults.
After observing these phenomena, pediatrician Fernando Polack of Vanderbilt
University in Nashville, Tenn., and his team explored past exposure to pathogens. They found that pre-existing antibodies
in infected middle-aged people recognized the 2009 H1N1 virus, but attacked organ tissue rather than defending against the
"Nobody really had a good explanation for why middle-aged people seemed to
have more severe disease than would have been expected," says Richard Scheuermann, an immunologist at the University of Texas
Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas. "This explanation is the first one that I've seen that actually makes sense."
The researchers took samples of blood and respiratory-tract fluid from people
infected with H1N1 in Argentina last year. Individuals with severe symptoms had low numbers of white blood cells called lymphocytes,
and those who died showed signs of swelling, blood loss and adverse immune responses in their lungs.
They found that middle-aged patients had antibodies that bound less effectively
to this H1N1 strain than did the antibodies of elderly people, and therefore did not protect against it. And the antibodies
of extremely ill individuals also bound less well to the virus than did those of mildly sick patients. These dysfunctional
antibodies attached to the flu pathogens and formed complexes that infiltrated the lungs and triggered a biochemical pathway
that promotes inflammation and can cause cell membranes to rupture. It was this process that damaged tissue in the patients
The team had also analyzed lung sections from people who had died in a 1957
pandemic involving the H2N2 strain of flu. They found evidence of similar complexes in the tissue. The finding implies that
deaths from that pandemic were also caused by pre-existing antibodies that were maladapted to fighting off the new infection.
"This is the first paper that has examined this idea of immune complexes as
a potential cause for severity of illness," says David Kelvin, an immunologist at the University Health Network in Toronto,
Canada. But the authors will have to perform experiments in animals to confirm that the faulty antibodies and harmful complexes are responsible for severe illness, he adds.
Polack explains that intense reactions to H1N1 were provoked by antibodies
that probably arose from prior contact with a seasonal flu strain known as H3N2, or with H1N1 strains present in the community
before the pandemic. Although these antibodies may have helped to combat seasonal flu strains, the new virus was different
enough not to produce the appropriate immune response. Because abnormal complexes were a factor in cases of both 2009 H1N1
and 1957 H2N2, the proposed mechanism could underlie excessive immune responses in a range of diseases, he says.
For instance, previous exposure to measles, dengue fever and respiratory syncytial
virus worsens some people's reactions to subsequent strains of those diseases, says Polack. But he adds that other factors,
such as secondary bacterial infections, also contribute to the severity of illness.
In light of the findings, Scheuermann cautions against attempts to develop
universal vaccines that work against different strains of flu viruses year after year, because they could generate destructive
antibodies. Instead, the results may prompt doctors to treat middle-aged flu patients with drugs that inhibit the formation
of antibody-pathogen complexes, he says, adding, "Now that we have an understanding of the mechanism of severe disease, we'll
be in a much better position to treat infected people and prevent them from dying."